Volume 1, DC Circuits, 538 pages 
Volume 2, AC Circuits, 554 pages 


Contents 
VASIC AC THEORY 
1 BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICITY 
1.1 What is alternating current (AC)? 
1.1 Static electricity 
1.2 AC waveforms 
1.2 Conductors, insulators, and electron
flow 
1.3 Measurements of AC magnitude 
1.3 Electric circuits 
1.4 Simple AC circuit calculations 
1.4 Voltage and current 
1.5 AC phase 
1.5 Resistance 
1.6 Principles of radio 
1.6 Voltage and current in a practical
circuit 

1.7 Conventional versus electron flow 
2 COMPLEX NUMBERS 

2.1 Introduction 
OHM’s LAW 
2.2 Vectors and AC waveforms 
2.1 How voltage, current, and resistance
relate 
2.3 Simple vector addition 
2.2 An analogy for Ohm’s Law 
2.4 Complex vector addition 
2.3 Power in electric circuits 
2.5 Polar and rectangular notation 
2.4 Calculating electric power 
2.6 Complex number arithmetic 
2.5 Resistors 
2.7 More on AC ”polarity” 
2.6 Nonlinear conduction 
2.8 Some examples with AC circuits 
2.7 Circuit wiring 

2.8 Polarity of voltage drops 
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – INDUCTIVE 
2.9 Computer simulation of electric
circuits 
3.1 AC resistor circuits 

3.2 AC inductor circuits 
ELECTRICAL SAFETY 
3.3 Series resistorinductor circuits 
3.1 The importance of electrical safety 
3.4 Parallel resistorinductor circuits 
3.2 Physiological effects of electricity 
3.5 Inductor quirks 
3.3 Shock current path 
3.6 More on the “skin effect” 
3.4 Ohm’s Law (again!) 

3.5 Safe practices 
4 REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – CAPACITIVE
81 
3.6 Emergency response 
4.1 AC resistor circuits 
3.7 Common sources of hazard 
4.2 AC capacitor circuits 
3.8 Safe circuit design 
4.3 Series resistorcapacitor circuits 
3.9 Safe meter usage 
4.4 Parallel resistorcapacitor circuits 
3.10 Electric shock data 
4.5 Capacitor quirks 


SCIENTIFIC NOTATION AND METRIC PREFIXES 
REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE – R, L, AND C 
4.1 Scientific notation 
5.1 Review of R, X, and Z 
4.2 Arithmetic with scientific notation 
5.2 Series R, L, and C 
4.3 Metric notation 
5.3 Parallel R, L, and C 
4.4 Metric prefix conversions 
5.4 Seriesparallel R, L, and C 
4.5 Hand calculator use 
5.5 Susceptance and Admittance 
4.6 Scientific notation in SPICE 


RESONANCE 
SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS 
6.1 An electric pendulum 
5.1 What are ”series” and ”parallel”
circuits? 
6.2 Simple parallel (tank circuit)
resonance 
5.2 Simple series circuits 
6.3 Simple series resonance 
5.3 Simple parallel circuits 
6.4 Applications of resonance 
5.4 Conductance 
6.5 Resonance in seriesparallel
circuits 
5.5 Power calculations 
6.6 Q and bandwidth of a resonant
circuit 
5.6 Correct use of Ohm’s Law 

5.7 Component failure analysis 
MIXEDFREQUENCY AC SIGNALS 
5.8 Building simple resistor circuits 
7.1 Introduction 

7.2 Square wave signals 
DIVIDER CIRCUITS AND KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS 
7.3 Other waveshapes 
6.1 Voltage divider circuits 
7.4 More on spectrum analysis 
6.2 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law (KVL) 
7.5 Circuit effects 
6.3 Current divider circuits 

6.4 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law (KCL) 
FILTERS 

8.1 What is a filter? 
SERIESPARALLEL COMBINATION CIRCUITS 
8.2 Lowpass filters 
7.1 What is a seriesparallel circuit? 
8.3 Highpass filters 
7.2 Analysis technique 
8.4 Bandpass filters 
7.3 Redrawing complex schematics 
8.5 Bandstop filters 
7.4 Component failure analysis 
8.6 Resonant filters 
7.5 Building seriesparallel resistor
circuits 


TRANSFORMERS 
DC METERING CIRCUITS 
9.1 Mutual inductance and basic
operation 
8.1 What is a meter? 
9.2 Stepup and stepdown transformers 
8.2 Voltmeter design 
9.3 Electrical isolation 
8.3 Voltmeter impact on measured circuit 
9.4 Phasing 
8.4 Ammeter design 
9.5 Winding configurations 
8.5 Ammeter impact on measured circuit 
9.6 Voltage regulation 
8.6 Ohmmeter design 
9.7 Special transformers and
applications 
8.7 High voltage ohmmeters 
9.8 Practical considerations 
8.8 Multimeters 

8.9 Kelvin (4wire) resistance
measurement 
POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS 
8.10 Bridge circuits 
10.1 Singlephase power systems 
8.11 Wattmeter design 
10.2 Threephase power systems 
8.12 Creating custom calibration
resistances 
10.3 Phase rotation 

10.4 Polyphase motor design 
ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION SIGNALS 
10.5 Threephase Y and Delta
configurations 
9.1 Analog and digital signals 
10.6 Threephase transformer circuits 
9.2 Voltage signal systems 
10.7 Harmonics in polyphase power
systems 
9.3 Current signal systems 
10.8 Harmonic phase sequences 
9.4 Tachogenerators 

9.5 Thermocouples 
POWER FACTOR 
9.6 pH measurement 
11.1 Power in resistive and reactive AC
circuits 
9.7 Strain gauges 
11.2 True, Reactive, and Apparent power 

11.3 Calculating power factor 
DC NETWORK ANALYSIS 
11.4 Practical power factor correction 
10.1 What is network analysis? 

10.2 Branch current method 
AC METERING CIRCUITS 
10.3 Mesh current method 
12.1 AC voltmeters and ammeters 
10.4 Node voltage method 
12.2 Frequency and phase measurement 
10.5 Introduction to network theorems 
12.3 Power measurement 
10.6 Millman’s Theorem 
12.4 Power quality measurement 
10.7 Superposition Theorem 
12.5 AC bridge circuits 
10.8 Thevenin’s Theorem 
12.6 AC instrumentation transducers 
10.9 Norton’s Theorem 

10.10TheveninNorton equivalencies 
AC MOTORS 
10.11Millman’s Theorem revisited 
13.1 Introduction 
10.12Maximum Power Transfer Theorem 
13.2 Synchronous Motors 
10.13¢Y and Y¢ conversions 
13.3 Synchronous condenser 

13.4 Reluctance motor 
BATTERIES AND POWER SYSTEMS 
13.5 Stepper motors 
11.1 Electron activity in chemical
reactions 
13.6 Brushless DC motor 
11.2 Battery construction 
13.7 Tesla polyphase induction motors 
11.3 Battery rations 
13.8 Wound rotor induction motors 
11.4 Specialpurpose batteries 
13.9 Singlephase induction motors 
11.5 Practical considerations 
13.10 Other specialized motors 

13.11 Selsyn (synchro) motors 
PHYSICS OF CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS 
13.12 AC commutator motors 
12.1 Introduction 

12.2 Conductor size 
TRANSMISSION LINES 
12.3 Conductor ampacity 
14.1 A 50ohm cable? 
12.4 Fuses 
14.2 Circuits and the speed of light 
12.5 Specific resistance 
14.3 Characteristic impedance 
12.6 Temperature coefficient of
resistance 
14.4 Finitelength transmission lines 
12.7 Superconductivity 
14.5 “Long” and “short” transmission
lines 
12.8 Insulator breakdown voltage 
14.6 Standing waves and resonance 
12.9 Data 
14.7 Impedance transformation 

14.8 Waveguides 
CAPACITORS 

13.1 Electric fields and capacitance 

13.2 Capacitors and calculus 

13.3 Factors affecting capacitance 

13.4 Series and parallel capacitors 

13.5 Practical considerations 



MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM 

14.1 Permanent magnets 

14.2 Electromagnetism 

14.3 Magnetic units of measurement 

14.4 Permeability and saturation 
Volume 4, Digital, 503 pages 
14.5 Electromagnetic induction 

14.6 Mutual inductance 
NUMERATION SYSTEMS 

1.1 Numbers and symbols 
INDUCTORS 
1.2 Systems of numeration 
15.1 Magnetic fields and inductance 
1.3 Decimal versus binary numeration 
15.2 Inductors and calculus 
1.4 Octal and hexadecimal numeration 
15.3 Factors affecting inductance 
1.5 Octal and hexadecimal to decimal
conversion 
15.4 Series and parallel inductors 
1.6 Conversion from decimal numeration 
15.5 Practical considerations 


BINARY ARITHMETIC 
RC AND L/R TIME CONSTANTS 
2.1 Numbers versus numeration 
16.1 Electrical transients 
2.2 Binary addition 
16.2 Capacitor transient response 
2.3 Negative binary numbers 
16.3 Inductor transient response 
2.4 Subtraction 
16.4 Voltage and current calculations 
2.5 Overflow 
16.5 Why L/R and not LR? 
2.6 Bit groupings 
16.6 Complex voltage and current
calculations 

16.7 Complex circuits 
LOGIC GATES 
16.8 Solving for unknown time 
3.1 Digital signals and gates 

3.2 The NOT gate 

3.3 The ”buffer” gate 
Volume 3, Semiconductors, 508 pages 
3.4 Multipleinput gates 

3.5 TTL NAND and AND gates 
AMPLIFIERS AND ACTIVE DEVICES 
3.6 TTL NOR and OR gates 
1.1 From electric to electronic 
3.7 CMOS gate circuitry 
1.2 Active versus passive devices 
3.8 Specialoutput gates 
1.3 Amplifiers 
3.9 Gate universality 
1.4 Amplifier gain 
3.10 Logic signal voltage levels 
1.5 Decibels 
3.11 DIP Gate packaging 
1.6 Absolute dB scales 

1.7 Attenuators 
SWITCHES 

4.1 Switch types 
SOLIDSTATE DEVICE THEORY 
4.2 Switch contact design 
2.1 Introduction 
4.3 Contact ”normal” state and
make/break sequence 
2.2 Quantum physics 
4.4 Contact ”bounce” 
2.3 Valence and Crystal structure 

2.4 Band theory of solids 
ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS 
2.5 Electrons and “holes” 
5.1 Relay construction 
2.6 The PN junction 
5.2 Contactors 
2.7 Junction diodes 
5.3 Timedelay relays 
2.8 Bipolar junction transistors 
5.4 Protective relays 
2.9 Junction fieldeffect transistors 
5.5 Solidstate relays 
2.10 Insulatedgate fieldeffect
transistors (MOSFET) 

2.11 Thyristors 
LADDER LOGIC 
2.12 Semiconductor manufacturing
techniques 
6.1 ”Ladder” diagrams 
2.13 Superconducting devices 
6.2 Digital logic functions 
2.14 Quantum devices 
6.3 Permissive and interlock circuits 
2.15 Semiconductor devices in SPICE 
6.4 Motor control circuits 

6.5 Failsafe design 
DIODES AND RECTIFIERS 
6.6 Programmable logic controllers 
3.1 Introduction 

3.2 Meter check of a diode 
BOOLEAN ALGEBRA 
3.3 Diode ratings 
7.1 Introduction 
3.4 Rectifier circuits 
7.2 Boolean arithmetic 
3.5 Peak detector 
7.3 Boolean algebraic identities 
3.6 Clipper circuits 
7.4 Boolean algebraic properties 
3.7 Clamper circuits 
7.5 Boolean rules for simplification 
3.8 Voltage multipliers 
7.6 Circuit simplification examples 
3.9 Inductor commutating circuits 
7.7 The ExclusiveOR function 
3.10 Diode switching circuits 
7.8 DeMorgan’s Theorems 
3.11 Zener diodes 
7.9 Converting truth tables into Boolean
expressions 
3.12 Specialpurpose diodes 

3.13 Other diode technologies 
KARNAUGH MAPPIN 
3.14 SPICE models 
8.1 Introduction 

8.2 Venn diagrams and sets 
BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS 
8.3 Boolean Relationships on Venn
Diagrams 
4.1 Introduction 
8.4 Making a Venn diagram look like a
Karnaugh map 
4.2 The transistor as a switch 
8.5 Karnaugh maps, truth tables, and
Boolean expressions 
4.3 Meter check of a transformer 
8.6 Logic simplification with Karnaugh
maps 
4.4 Active mode operation 
8.7 Larger 4variable Karnaugh maps 
4.5 The commonemitter amplifier 
8.8 Minterm vs maxterm solution 
4.6 The commoncollector amplifier 
8.9 § (sum) and ¦ (product) notation 
4.7 The commonbase amplifier 
8.10 Don’t care cells in the Karnaugh
map 
4.8 The cascode amplifier 
8.11 Larger 5 & 6variable Karnaugh maps 
4.9 Biasing techniques 

4.10 Biasing calculations 
COMBINATIONAL LOGIC FUNCTIONS 
4.11 Input and output coupling 
9.1 Introduction 
4.12 Feedback 
9.2 A HalfAdder 
4.13 Amplifier impedances 
9.3 A FullAdder 
4.14 Current mirrors 
9.4 Decoder 
4.15 Transistor ratings and packages 
9.5 Encoder 
4.16 BJT quirks 
9.6 Demultiplexers 

9.7 Multiplexers 
JUNCTION FIELDEFFECT TRANSISTORS 
9.8 Using multiple combinational
circuits 
5.1 Introduction 

5.2 The transistor as a switch 
MULTIVIBRATORS 
5.3 Meter check of a transistor 
10.1 Digital logic with feedback 
5.4 Activemode operation 
10.2 The SR latch 

10.3 The gated SR latch 
INSULATEDGATE FIELDEFFECT TRANSISTORS
303 
10.4 The D latch 
6.1 Introduction 
10.5 Edgetriggered latches: FlipFlops 
6.2 Depletiontype IGFETs 
10.6 The JK flipflop 

10.7 Asynchronous flipflop inputs 

10.8 Monostable multivibrators 
THYRISTORS 

7.1 Hysteresis 
11 SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS 
7.2 Gas discharge tubes 
11.1 Binary count sequence 
7.3 The Shockley Diode 
11.2 Asynchronous counters 
7.4 The DIAC 
11.3 Synchronous counters 
7.5 The SiliconControlled Rectifier (SCR) 
11.4 Counter modulus 
7.6 The TRIAC 
11.5 Finite State Machines 
7.7 Optothyristors 

7.8 The Unijunction Transistor (UJT) 
SHIFT REGISTERS 
7.9 The SiliconControlled Switch (SCS) 
12.1 Introduction 
7.10 Fieldeffectcontrolled thyristors 
12.2 Serialin/serialout shift register 

12.3 Parallelin, serialout shift
register 
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 
12.4 Serialin, parallelout shift
register 
8.1 Introduction 
12.5 Parallelin, parallelout,
universal shift register 
8.2 Singleended and differential
amplifiers 
12.6 Ring counters 
8.3 The ”operational” amplifier 

8.4 Negative feedback 
DIGITALANALOG CONVERSION 
8.5 Divided feedback 
13.1 Introduction 
8.6 An analogy for divided feedback 
13.2 The R/2nR DAC 
8.7 Voltagetocurrent signal conversion 
13.3 The R/2R DAC 
8.8 Averager and summer circuits 
13.4 Flash ADC 
8.9 Building a differential amplifier 
13.5 Digital ramp ADC 
8.10 The instrumentation amplifier 
13.6 Successive approximation ADC 
8.11 Differentiator and integrator
circuits 
13.7 Tracking ADC 
8.12 Positive feedback 
13.8 Slope (integrating) ADC 
8.13 Practical considerations 
13.9 DeltaSigma (¢§) ADC 
8.14 Operational amplifier models 
13.10 Practical considerations of ADC
circuits 
8.15 Data 


DIGITAL COMMUNICATION 
PRACTICAL ANALOG SEMICONDUCTOR CIRCUITS 
14.1 Introduction 
9.1 ElectroStatic Discharge 
14.2 Networks and busses 
9.2 Computational circuits 
14.3 Data flow 

14.4 Electrical signal types 
ACTIVE FILTERS 
14.5 Optical data communication 
DC MOTOR DRIVES 
14.6 Network topology 
11.1 Pulse Width Modulation 
14.7 Network protocols 

14.8 Practical considerations 
INVERTERS AND AC MOTOR DRIVES 


DIGITAL STORAGE (MEMORY) 
ELECTRON TUBES 
15.1 Why digital? 
13.1 Introduction 
15.2 Digital memory terms and concepts 
13.2 Early tube history 
15.3 Modern nonmechanical memory 
13.3 The triode 
15.4 Historical, nonmechanical memory
technologies 
13.4 The tetrode 
15.5 Readonly memory 
13.5 Beam power tubes 
15.6 Memory with moving parts: ”Drives” 
13.6 The pentode 

13.7 Combination tubes 
PRINCIPLES OF DIGITAL COMPUTING 
13.8 Tube parameters 
16.1 A binary adder 
13.9 Ionization (gasfilled) tubes 
16.2 Lookup tables 
13.10 Display tubes 
16.3 Finitestate machines 
13.11 Microwave tubes 
16.4 Microprocessors 
13.12 Tubes versus Semiconductors 
16.5 Microprocessor programming 


Volume 5, Reference, 155 pages 
Volume 6 Experiments, 406 pages 


More DC circuit equations...... 
Setting up Science experiments 